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A documentary collection follows a fixed time frame. We will show you the various stages.
Stages of a Documentary Collection
The whole process, extending from the first contact between the buyer (drawee and importer) and the seller (customer, presenter and exporter) to the completion of the transaction, can involve many separate steps. Fundamentally, however, a documentary collection has three stages.
Establishing the terms of collection: The seller stipulates the terms of payment in his quotation or agrees them with the buyer in a sales contract.
Collection Order and Submission of Documents: After receiving the order or after concluding the sales contract, the seller dispatches the ordered goods, either directly to the address of the buyer or to that of the collecting bank (the buyer's bank). At the same time, he prepares all the necessary documents (invoice, bill of lading, insurance certificate, certificate of origin, etc.) and sends them to the remitting bank (the seller's bank) together with the collection order.
The remitting bank sends the documents, together with the necessary instructions, to a bank in the buyer's country. In most cases, this bank presents the documents directly to the buyer. Under some circumstances, it will entrust another bank with the presentation.
The term "presenting bank" is used to denote the collecting bank which presents the documents to the buyer.
Credit Suisse provides a special order form for the seller's convenience to facilitate formulating the order for the documentary collection.
Before the seller submits the collection order to his bank, he must check whether the documents have been fully and accurately completed; this is not the bank's obligation. The bank's task is to merely forward the documents and to carry out the collection order in a professional manner. The bank will, however, check to ensure that all the documents listed in the collection order have been submitted.
The seller should note the following points in particular: Has he presented all the documents demanded by the buyer or stipulated in the contract of sale? Have the documents been made out in accordance with the laws and regulations of the importing country? Have the documents been duly signed? Have the bill of lading, the insurance document and the bill of exchange been endorsed on the reverse (if necessary)? Endorsement is sufficient for transfer if the documents are made out to order.
Presentation of documents to the buyer and payment: The presenting bank notifies the buyer of receipt of the documents and of the conditions for their release. It receives his payment or acceptance in exchange for the documents (payment against delivery) and transfers the collected amount to the remitting bank, which then credits the sum to the seller.
The advice from the presenting bank is accompanied by photocopies of the documents. These provide the buyer with the essential facts about the goods that have been sent and inform him whether the documents received by the bank will enable him to take delivery of the goods and clear them through customs.
The buyer may, if he wishes, go to the presenting bank's offices and examine the papers. The bank is not, however, allowed to let him inspect the goods at the place of destination without express authorization from the seller.
Once the buyer has accepted and paid the documents, the presenting bank transfers the proceeds from the "documents against payment" collection to the remitting bank.
This may, however, pose problems in countries where the availability of foreign currency is limited, as the currency stipulated by the collection order may not be available to the buyer. At the request of both buyers and sellers, it has now become customary to release the documents to the buyer against the deposit of an equivalent amount in local currency together with an exchange risk guarantee. In this way, the buyer can take immediate possession of the goods even if the necessary foreign currency is not available at the time. However, this procedure must be expressly permitted in the collection order, as the seller continues to bear the transfer risk.
In the case of "documents against acceptance" collections, the Bill of Exchange stays in the collecting bank or is returned to the remitting bank depending on the instructions of the seller following release of the documents. The bank delivers the Bill of Exchange to the seller, who may either have the bill of exchange discounted or the amount credited at maturity. For Bills of Exchange with medium-term maturities forfaiting may be possible under certain circumstances.
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