Tariff measures such as customs duties and levies are a barrier to trade for almost half the SMEs surveyed. However, non-tariff barriers such as customs procedures and the associated costs have a greater impact. So too do the costs involved in conformity assessments and the provision of certificates of origin.
Yet these tariff and non-tariff trade barriers are by no means the biggest challenge facing Swiss SME exporters. The higher level of prices for Swiss products and services, as well as exchange rate risks and the strong Swiss franc, are described as having an even more harmful impact on exports.
The link between growing protectionism and the business situation for SME exporters is not quite as clear-cut as might be expected. Despite the challenges, a majority of Swiss SMEs rated the business situation in exports as positive at the time of the survey. A not insignificant proportion of the participants indicated that they were satisfied with their own levels of export activity, yet at the same time were experiencing either some or major difficulties with trade barriers.
Export activity is dependent not only on trade barriers but also on the economic cycle. Although the survey results lead the authors of the SME study to conclude that companies perceive the barriers as a challenge, they note that SMEs do seem to have a plan or strategy for overcoming these obstacles.