Our Board of Directors. Its independence.
The Board of Directors consists solely of non-executive directors within the Group. The majority must also be determined to be independent. Our independence standards are periodically measured against international best practice standards.
The Governance and Nominations Committee performs an annual assessment of the independence of each Board member and reports its findings to the Board for the final determination of independence of each individual member. The Board has applied the independence criteria of the Swiss Code of Best Practice for Corporate Governance and the |*|FINMA and the rules of the NYSE and Nasdaq in determining the definition of independence. In general, a director is considered independent if the director:
- is not, and has not been for the prior three years, employed as an executive officer or in another function at the Group or any of its subsidiaries;
- is not, and has not been for the prior three years, an employee or affiliate of our external auditor; and
- does not maintain a material direct or indirect business relationship with the Group or any of its subsidiaries.
Whether or not a relationship between the Group or any of its subsidiaries and a member of the Board is considered material depends in particular on the following factors:
- the volume and size of any transactions concluded in relation to the financial status and credit standing of the Board member concerned or the organization in which he or she is a partner, significant shareholder or executive officer;
- the terms and conditions applied to such transactions in comparison to those applied to transactions with counterparties of a similar credit standing;
- whether the transactions are subject to the same internal approval processes and procedures as transactions that are concluded with other counterparties;
- whether the transactions are performed in the ordinary course of business; and
- whether the transactions are structured in such a way and on such terms and conditions that the transaction could be concluded with a third party on comparable terms and conditions.
For Board members serving on the Compensation Committee, the independence determination considers all factors relevant to determining whether a director has a relationship with the Group that is material to that director's ability to be independent from management in connection with the duties of a Compensation Committee member, including, but not limited to:
- the source of any compensation of the Compensation Committee member, including any consulting, advisory or other compensatory fees paid by the Group to such director; and
- whether the Compensation Committee member is affiliated with the Group, any of its subsidiaries or any affiliates of any of its subsidiaries.
Moreover, a Board member is not considered independent if the Board member is, or has been at any time during the prior three years, part of an interlocking directorate in which a member of the Executive Board serves on the compensation committee of another company that employs the Board member. The length of tenure a Board member has served is not a criterion for independence. Significant shareholder status is also not considered a criterion for independence unless the shareholding exceeds 10% of the Group's share capital. Board members with immediate family members who would not qualify as independent are also not considered independent. In addition to measuring Board members against the independence criteria, the Governance and Nominations Committee also considers whether other commitments of an individual Board member prevent the person from devoting enough time to his or her Board mandate. While the Group is not subject to such standards, the Board acknowledges that some proxy advisors apply different standards for assessing the independence of our Board members, including the length of tenure a Board member has served, annual compensation levels of Board members within a comparable range to executive pay or a Board member's former executive status further back than three years.
As of December 31, 2018, all 13 members of the Board were determined by the Board to be independent.